Amazon Web Services (AWS) Security Token Service (STS) is a crucial component for managing temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS resources. Rather than relying on static keys, AWS STS allows you to adopt a more secure and flexible approach by granting access to AWS services and resources for a predefined duration. This service is particularly useful when there is a need to grant access to users who do not have permanent AWS accounts or when providing access to applications that run on an untrusted environment.
The agility of AWS STS makes it an essential tool for scenarios requiring cross-account access or federated user sessions. This service simplifies the integration with existing identity systems, such as corporate directories, and provides the means to align with best practices for security, by following the principle of least privilege. Implementing temporary credentials through AWS STS is fundamental in creating a robust security posture, ensuring that each entity has access only for the time required to perform specific tasks.
- AWS STS enhances security by issuing temporary credentials with limited permissions.
- Temporary credentials provide flexible access control for various environments and applications.
- AWS STS supports cross-account and federated user scenarios, improving overall integration.
Understanding AWS STS
Amazon Web Services (AWS) Security Token Service (STS) is a global service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate. STS is a web service that helps improve your AWS environment’s security posture.
Overview of Temporary Security Credentials
AWS STS provides temporary security credentials that enable access to AWS services and resources. These credentials are dynamically supplied to authenticated users or services, mainly to reduce the risk of long-term credential exposure. Credentials obtained through STS expire after a set duration, thus enhancing security. They include access keys, secret access keys, and session tokens which can be configured to last from a few minutes up to several hours.
STS APIs and Operations
Using STS, several APIs and operations can be called to assume different roles within AWS. For example, the
AssumeRole API allows users to gain temporary credentials for a role with specific permissions. STS’s API operations play a pivotal role in implementing secure access management by granting users only the necessary permissions, hence adhering to the principle of least privilege.
AWS STS and AWS Regions
Although STS is a global service, it’s important to choose the correct AWS region to minimize latency when your applications use STS. For instance, if most of your AWS resources are in the US East (N. Virginia) region, calling STS in the same region can lead to latency improvements. Nevertheless, STS ensures that the credentials obtained can be used with AWS resources in any other region worldwide.
Implementing Temporary Credentials
When dealing with AWS security, implementing temporary credentials is essential for granting controlled access to AWS resources. This measure not only enhances security by shortening the credential lifespan but also offers flexible permission management.
Creating Temporary Credentials for AWS Resources
Temporary credentials can be generated for users and applications to access AWS resources without using permanent IAM user credentials. To create these credentials, one can leverage the AWS Security Token Service (STS), which provides a
session token used to perform allowed actions in AWS. The session token itself has an associated validity period that dictates how long the credentials will remain active, typically ranging from a few minutes to several hours.
- Step 1: Initiate a trusted entity request (like an IAM user) through AWS STS.
- Step 2: Upon successful authentication, AWS STS issues three pieces of information:
- Access Key ID: For identifying the IAM user or account.
- Secret Access Key: For request signing.
- Session Token: To maintain the session’s security.
- Step 3: Users use the temporary credentials in the same way as long-term credentials.
Following these steps ensures secure, temporary access to necessary services without compromising long-term credentials.
Managing Session Policies and Permissions
To manage permissions for temporary credentials, administrators define session policies that limit what actions and resources the temporary credentials can access. Here’s how it integrates with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM):
- Fine-grained access control: Attach inline policies to IAM roles specifying precisely what actions are allowed during the session.
- Least privilege principle: Only grant the minimum permissions necessary for the task.
A typical process involves:
- Defining an IAM role with the necessary permissions.
- Determining the session token validity period appropriate for the use case.
- AssumeRole, GetFederationToken, or AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity calls to STS to obtain temporary security credentials that inherit the permissions from the IAM role.
Session Policies can be:
- Inline: Directly attached to the temporary session.
- Managed: Standalone policies that can be attached to multiple entities.
By managing session policies and permissions appropriately, one can enforce a robust security posture in AWS environments, ensuring that entities are granted access only for the duration and actions required.
Integration with AWS Services
AWS Security Token Service (STS) allows for the creation and provision of trusted users with temporary, limited-privilege credentials to access AWS services. This section discusses how STS integrates with various AWS services through the AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) and Software Development Kits (SDKs), with specific focus on its integration with Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).
Using STS with AWS CLI and SDKs
AWS STS can be integrated with the AWS CLI and various SDKs to manage temporary credentials for applications and users. Users can invoke the
get-session-token commands through the CLI to retrieve credentials. For instance:
- With AWS CLI:
aws sts assume-role \ --role-arn "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/demo" \ --role-session-name AWSCLI-Session
- In SDKs, one can set an environment variable to specify the region:
import boto3 session = boto3.Session( aws_access_key_id='ACCESS_KEY', aws_secret_access_key='SECRET_KEY', aws_session_token='SESSION_TOKEN', )
These credentials can then be used to access AWS services in a secure fashion without hard-coding API keys.
STS and S3 Integration
The integration of STS with Amazon S3 enables applications to access S3 buckets and objects using temporary credentials that restrict what users can and cannot do. For example, an application on EC2 can assume a role that grants it permission to only read specific S3 buckets.
Here is an example of using temporary credentials with Amazon S3:
s3 = session.client('s3')
response = s3.list_objects_v2(Bucket='my-bucket')
This integration ensures that even if the temporary credentials are compromised, the exposure is limited and does not provide full access to the AWS environment.
Managing STS in Different Environments
Security Token Service (STS) is pivotal for managing temporary, limited-privilege credentials in AWS environments. When configuring STS, one must consider the regional deployment and federated access preferences, ensuring that security is maintained without sacrificing functionality.
Configuring Federated Access
To configure federated access with AWS STS, it is crucial to establish trust between the AWS account and the federating entity, which could be an identity provider or a corporate directory. For example, in regions like us-east (Ohio), one needs to create an IAM role that defines the permissions for federated users and specifies the trust relationship.
- Create IAM Role:
- Define Permissions – Assign necessary policies that grant the desired permissions to the federated users.
- Trust Relationship – Establish the trust between AWS services and the federating entity.
- Identity Broker Configuration:
- Implement an identity broker to authenticate users against the federated entity.
- The broker then requests STS to assume the IAM role, receiving security credentials for the user.
In us-west (N. California) or another specified AWS region, this process would be similar, but it’s always good to verify if there are any region-specific nuances that must be addressed.
Activating STS in AWS Regions
Activating STS in a specific AWS region involves modifying the STS endpoint to align with the chosen region name. This is essential to optimize latency and ensure compliance with data residency requirements.
- Modify the STS endpoint to point to regional endpoints such as
sts.us-west-2.amazonaws.comfor the US West (N. California) region.
- It is important to activate STS in each region where federation will occur.
- Modify the STS endpoint to point to regional endpoints such as
- If needed, STS can be deactivated by removing the regional endpoint configuration.
- This action should be taken with caution as it will impact federated access to AWS resources in that region.
It is vital for administrators to accurately activate or deactivate AWS STS in the relevant regions to align with organizational preferences and requirements. This allows for a tailored approach to security and compliance across different AWS environments.
Monitoring and Compliance
In the context of AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS), monitoring and compliance involve tracking and auditing actions taken with issued temporary credentials. Customers are accountable for capturing these security events to ensure adherence to security policies and regulatory mandates.
Auditing with AWS CloudTrail
AWS CloudTrail plays a pivotal role in auditing security-related events in AWS STS. When a temporary security credential is used to make a request to AWS, CloudTrail logs the event, including details like the identity of the caller, the time of the call, and the source IP address. Users can leverage these logs to:
- Track: Every API call to AWS STS is recorded, leaving an immutable record of user activities and service event history.
- Verify: Regularly review actions to ensure they align with existing compliance frameworks.
- Analyze: Detect unusual activity patterns that could signify potential security risks.
Redundancy in logging ensures no critical event evades capture, with the ability to define multiple trails across different AWS regions and accounts, promoting comprehensive oversight and robustness in the audit process.
User Experience and Troubleshooting
When utilizing AWS Security Token Service (STS), users often interact with the AWS Management Console for various tasks and may encounter issues requiring troubleshooting. The experience should be straightforward, but understanding where problems can arise and how to address them is crucial.
Navigating the AWS Management Console
The AWS Management Console is a user-friendly interface that allows secure management of AWS Services. To learn more about STS within the console, one should use the search functionality or navigate to the “Security, Identity, & Compliance” section. It’s imperative for users to close any unused services to maintain a clean workspace. For enhanced management of STS, they can use the IAM dashboard to create and manage roles and policies, ensuring secure cross-service interactions.
Resolving Common Issues
Users may face common issues such as:
- Expired Credentials: STS tokens are temporary and can expire; users must then request new tokens.
- Permission Errors: These occur when the IAM policies do not grant the required permissions for STS.
Troubleshooting steps include:
- Checking expiry time on the token to confirm it’s still valid.
- Verifying IAM policies to ensure they have the necessary permissions for the intended actions.
Users should utilize the provided documentation on the AWS Management Console to learn more about specific errors and the appropriate corrective actions.
Global Service and Regional Endpoints
When working with AWS Security Token Service (STS), it is crucial to understand the distinction between global services and regional endpoints. AWS STS provides options to manage where your requests are directed and processed.
Choosing the Right Region for Your STS Requests
The AWS STS is available in multiple AWS Regions worldwide, allowing users to send their token requests to endpoints nearest to them. Choosing the right region for STS requests can help optimize latency and manage data residency requirements. Requests to an AWS STS regional endpoint are processed within the same region.
Here is a table listing some of the regions where AWS STS regional endpoints are available:
|US West (Oregon)
|Africa (Cape Town)
|Asia Pacific (Hong Kong)
|Asia Pacific (Mumbai)
|South America (São Paulo)
Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
To effectively manage the request routing for services, be informed that some AWS services are global and do not require region-specific endpoint access. However, when using STS, the need to specify regional endpoints is important, especially when considering data sovereignty and compliance with local regulations. For instance, if a user operates out of Asia Pacific (Sydney), they can direct their STS requests to the
ap-southeast-2 endpoint to maintain data processing within the Australian jurisdiction.
Beyond geographic considerations, selecting an appropriate AWS STS regional endpoint can help ensure high availability and reliability for authentication and authorization workflows. By leveraging local endpoints, entities can avoid cross-regional data transfer charges, reduce latency, and increase the efficiency of their AWS resource interactions.
Frequently Asked Questions
AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate. These credentials are designed to be used for accessing AWS services and resources.
How can I use AWS STS to assume a role in another AWS account?
To assume a role in another AWS account using AWS STS, an IAM user needs permissions that allow the ‘sts’ action. When these permissions are in place, they can call ‘AssumeRole’ and pass the ARN of the role to be assumed to obtain temporary security credentials that enable access to resources in the other account.
What are the steps to set up an STS endpoint within a VPC?
To set up an STS endpoint within a VPC, the user must create a VPC endpoint for the STS service using the AWS Management Console or AWS CLI. After creating it, configure the VPC routing to allow requests through the endpoint. Finally, update IAM policies to ensure that only the VPC endpoint can be used to access STS if required.
What is the typical pricing structure for AWS STS requests?
AWS STS requests are generally free of charge. However, if you use AWS STS from an AWS Region that is different from your IAM user’s home region, data transfer charges may apply. Also, if you are using a VPC endpoint for STS, standard VPC endpoint pricing is applicable.
How do I retrieve temporary security credentials using AWS STS?
Temporary security credentials can be retrieved using AWS STS by calling one of the STS API operations such as ‘AssumeRole’, ‘GetSessionToken’, or ‘AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity’. These operations return credentials which consist of an access key ID, a secret access key, and a session token.
In what scenarios should I use AWS STS GetSessionToken versus AssumeRole?
Use ‘GetSessionToken’ when you need to retrieve credentials for a user that is already authenticated but needs temporary access to AWS resources. ‘AssumeRole’ is used when you need to delegate access to users that normally don’t have permissions or when you need to access resources across AWS accounts.
How can AWS STS be integrated with Boto3 to manage temporary credentials?
In Boto3, the AWS SDK for Python, you can manage temporary credentials by creating a session with an assumed role or a federated user. After calling the assume role or get session token method from the STS client in Boto3, you can use the temporary credentials to instantiate clients for other AWS services.